Journal of Behavioral Public Administration <p><em>Journal of Behavioral Public Administration (JBPA)</em> is a peer-reviewed, interdisciplinary open access journal that focuses on behavioral and experimental research in public administration, broadly defined.&nbsp; JBPA encourages submissions of both basic scholarly and applied work conducted by academics or practitioners.</p> en-US <p>Manuscripts accepted for publicaction in JBPA are licensed under a <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License</a> (CC-BY 4.0).&nbsp; It allows all uses of published manuscripts but requires attribution.</p> <p>The CC-BY license applies also to data, code and experimental material, except when it conflicts with a prior copyright.&nbsp; Common courtesy requires informing authors of new uses of their data, as well as acknowledging the source.</p> (Sebastian Jilke) (Ivan Lee) Tue, 01 Jan 2019 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 Do Freedom of Information Laws Increase Transparency of Government? A replication of a field experiment <p>Transparency and responsiveness are core values of democratic governments, yet do Freedom of Information Laws - one of the legal basis for such values - actually help to increase these values? This paper reports a replication of a field experiment testing for the responsiveness of public authorities by Worthy et al (2016) in the United Kingdom. We sent 390 information requests to Dutch local government bodies, half of which were framed as official FOIA requests, the other half as informal requests for information. We were able to reproduce the original findings, that is, we found a positive effect of FOIA requests on responsiveness. The overall response rate of local governments was much higher (76%) and the size of the effect was larger than in the original experiment. Furthermore, the strongest effect of FOI was found on proactive disclosure (concordance), something that governments - strictly speaking - are not obliged to do according to the Dutch FOIA. Implications for future replication studies are discussed.</p> Stephan Grimmelikhuijsen, Peter John, Albert Meijer, Ben Worthy ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 01 Jan 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Experimental Tests for Gender Effects in a Principal-Agent Game <p>Traditional arguments against women as leaders suggest that women would not be extended the trust necessary for leadership and/or that women undermine their own bargaining position by extending too much trust to others. We examine data from a laboratory test in which pairs of subjects are given the task of negotiating a wage-labor agreement.&nbsp; We first derive the optimal contract offer for principals and response by agents. We find that men and women do not reach different bargaining outcomes. We also find that women in authority are perceived as more trustworthy than men with authority, and women are no more or less trusting than men of their superiors or subordinates. The perceived trust is not rooted in differential wage terms but is based on the negotiation setting. Thus, women are likely to be extended the trust necessary to lead and are not likely to produce outcomes that are significantly different from men.</p> Andrew B Whitford, Holona L Ochs ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 01 Jan 2019 00:00:00 +0000 A Bayesian Approach for Behavioral Public Administration: Citizen Assessments of Local Government Sustainability Performance <p>Citizens are increasingly critical information-processors, and government performance information has become ubiquitous to the tenants of democratic anchorage and support for public programs. Yet human perceptions of governmental policies and outcomes are increasingly partisan and resistant to updating. Partisan motivated reasoning can lead to inaccurate or biased assessments of both the merit of specific policies and governmental performance. This article presents a case for the use of Bayesian inference for experimental work on information-processing. Combining previous findings with a new experimental design, this study examines whether provision of performance information on local government implementation of federally initiated sustainability efforts ameliorates the partisan motivated reasoning of citizens. Contrary to expectations, the study finds evidence of attitude-strengthening in the face of disconfirming performance as well as suggesting partisan cues may help citizens calibrate their evaluations.</p> Aaron Deslatte ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 01 Jan 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Trust in Institutions: Narrowing the Ideological Gap over the Federal Budget <p>Do liberals and conservatives who trust the government have more similar preferences regarding the federal budget than liberals and conservatives who do not? Prior research has shown that the ideological gap over spending increases and tax cuts narrows at high levels of trust in government. We extend this literature by examining whether the dampening effect of trust operates when more difficult budgetary decisions (spending cuts and tax increases) have to be made. Although related, a tax increase demands greater material and ideological sacrifice from individuals than tax cuts. The same logic can be applied to support for spending cuts. We test the trust-as-heuristic hypothesis using measures of revealed budgetary preferences from a population-based survey containing an embedded budget simulation. Our findings show that trusting liberals and conservatives share similar preferences toward spending cuts and tax increases, adding an important empirical addendum to a theory based on sacrificial costs.</p> Kim-Lee Tuxhorn, John W. D'Attoma, Sven Steinmo ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 04 Feb 2019 23:42:26 +0000 Parents’ Social Norms and Children’s Exposure to Three Behavioral Risk Factors for Chronic Disease <p>Social norms predict health behaviors of adults and adolescents. We aimed to determine if parents’ beliefs about social norms were associated with children’s exposure to three behavioral risk factors. We asked 648 parents of children ages 0-18 years old attending two pediatric practices about their children’s exposure to smoking at home. Parents of 341 parents with children &gt;2 years old were also asked about insufficient dental care, and 435 with children aged &gt;12 months about their children’s sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption. Children were categorized as “at risk” or “not at risk” for each factor.The primary outcome was the parent-reported estimate of neighborhood prevalence of those same risk factors.Of eligible participants, 8% reported smoking at home, 23% that their child hadn’t seen a dentist for 6 months, and 35% that their child drank SSBs once a day or more. In multivariate analyses, parents with children in the “at risk” group estimated that the prevalence of each risk factor was higher in their neighborhood, than did participants with children in the “not at risk” group: difference of 12.2% [95% CI, 5.8%-18.6%] for tobacco-smoke exposure, 18.6% [95% CI, 10.7%-26.5%] for lack of regular dental visits and 12.1% [95% CI, 5.1%-19.0%] for SSB consumption (P&lt;0.001 for all comparisons).Parents of children exposed to three behavioral risk factors reported higher perceived prevalence of each risk factor compared to parents of children not at risk. Addressing parents’ social norms beliefs could help promote healthier behaviors of children.</p> Oliver Drouin, Jonathan P. Winickoff, Anne N. Thorndike ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 01 Jan 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Descriptive Norms and Gender Diversity: Reactance from Men <p>Descriptive norms provide social information on others’ typical behaviors and have been shown to lead to prescriptive outcomes by “nudging” individuals towards norm compliance in numerous settings. This paper examines whether descriptive norms lead to prescriptive outcomes in the gender domain. We examine whether such social information can influence the gender distribution of candidates selected by employers in a hiring context.&nbsp; We conduct a series of laboratory experiments where ‘employers’ decide how many male and female ‘employees’ they want to hire for male- and female-typed tasks and examine whether employers are more likely to hire more of one gender when informed that others have done so as well. In this set-up descriptive norms do not have prescriptive effects. In fact, descriptive norms do not affect female employers’ hiring decisions at all and lead to norm reactance and backlash from male employers when informed that others have hired more women.</p> Maliheh Paryavi, Iris Bohnet, Alexandra van Geen ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 21 Feb 2019 00:00:00 +0000